Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
DMU Home DMU Home
LLS logo

Harvard Referencing Guide: Reference list

Reference list/Bibliography

Full references of sources used should be listed as a reference list at the end of your work. Whenever possible, elements of a bibliographical reference should be taken from the title page of the publication or from the library catalogue.

This list of references is arranged alphabetically by the first element of the reference, which is usually the author's last name. Alternatively this could be the name of an organisation, a country, or the title of legislation, depending on the reference format for that particular source.

Authors should be in capitals, followed by the date (year of publication) in brackets.

If the author is James Robert Jones this will become JONES, J. R.

Abdul-Rahman Al-Haddad would be AL-HADDAD, A.

If there is no author use ANONYMOUS

Each reference should give the elements and punctuation as found below. In the following examples, the source (e.g. title) has been italicised. It is essential when compiling a reference list is to be consistent throughout, and to ensure each reference is presented in the same way.

Example of a Reference List
ASHTON, F. (1948) Cinderella. [Royal Opera House, London, 13th January 2004].
CHAN, T.M. (2011) Three problems about dynamic convex hulls. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Symposium on Computational Geometry, Paris, June 2011. New York: ACM, pp. 27-37.
MAIMON, D. and BROWNING, C.R. (2012) Adolescents’ violent victimization in the neighbourhood: situational and contextual determinants. British journal of criminology, 52 (4), pp. 808-833.
MALTZMAN, R. and SHIRLEY, D. (c.2011) Green project management. London: CRCPress.

 

You may also be required by your tutor to include a bibliography which should list not only all items used within the text but also any other sources you have read as part of your research. Examples of these can be found at the end of journal articles or books (but might not be in Harvard style).