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Harvard Referencing Guide: No dates/pages?

A note about dates and page numbers


If no date can be established you can use n.d.

e.g. Webb (n.d.)

If the date can be established but only approximately you should use c.

e.g. Webb (c.2015).


Page numbers

Electronic books read via an e-reader such as the Kindle do not have traditional page numbers. In this case, if you need to use a quotation from this source, use the chapter numbers for indicating the location of the quoted section:

e.g. Jones (2016, chapter 6) states that…

If you wish to cite a web resource that does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation:

• A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document:

e.g. British Medical Association (2014, para. 2) states that...

• An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section:

e.g. NHS (2014, Migraines, para. 3) states that...

• A short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full:

e.g. NHS (2014, Risks section, “Driving and mobile phones”) states that...


A PDF is a format rather than a type of resource. You should reference this according to the source type, but if this is not possible, you can reference as a website.