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Harvard Referencing Guide: Ebooks, ejournals and online

Electronic books and electronic journals

Note: Electronic books and electronic journals should be cited in the same way as print, using the guidelines for Books and Journals.

Online sources

The principles for citing online resources are the same as for other formats; use the author and date of publication in the text, then follow the convention as detailed for the type of source. The nature of web resources means that author names are often not available and dates can be very vague. You will therefore need to decide who is responsible for producing the web page and use them as the author; often this will be an organisation rather than a personal name. You should be able to find this information by following “about us” or “contact us” links.

If there is no author or organisation you can use the title of the web page. If there is no title use a truncated web address (you should consider whether this resource is suitable for academic work).