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IEEE Referencing Guide: Other print sources

Images, Diagrams and Charts

Author, “Title of the work”, [Material type, e.g. Image/Diagram/Chart] at or in (where found, for example in a book or museum) Title, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, year, page number.


e.g. K.T. Ulrich and S.D. Eppinger, “The five-step concept generation method”, [Diagram], in Product design and development, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012, p.120.


Where the image cited from a book is not the work of the author, additional reference to the work should be made, as follows:
Creator/Artist, “Title of the work”, [Material type, e.g. Image/Diagram/Chart] year, at or in (where found,
for example in a book or museum) Author/editor of book, Title. Place of publication: Publisher, year, page number.


e.g. W.R. Stahel, “The Self-Replenishing System”, [Diagram] 1982, in P. Stasinopoulos, M.H. Smith, K. Hargrovers and C. Desha, Whole system design: an integrated approach to sustainable engineering. USA: Earthscan, 2009, p.91.

Theses and Dissertations

Author, Title, Designation (Level, e.g. MSc., PhD.), Institution, Year.
e.g. H. Sasse, Enhancing numerical modelling efficiency for electromagnetic simulation of physical layer components, PhD., De Montfort University, 2010.

Market Research Reports

Name of issuing body, Title, Edition (if available). Place of publication: Publisher, Report no. (if relevant), date.
e.g. Mintel, Mobile application gaming: Mintel marketing report. London: Mintel International, February 2012.

Conference Proceedings

Author(s), “Title of paper”, in Title of the conference proceedings, place and date of conference (unless included in title), page numbers (use p. or pp.).
e.g. W. Al-Azzawi and M. Al-Akaidi, “Robust stability of solar-power wireless network control system with stochastic time delays based on H2 norm”, in IET Conference on wireless sensor systems (WSS 2012), London 18-19 June 2012, pp.71-76.

Standards and Patents

Name of the Organization/Author that has produced the standard/patent, Title of the standard/patent, Number of the standard/patent, date.
e.g. British Standards Institute, Reciprocating internal combustion engines. Exhaust emission measurement. Measurement of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions under field conditions, BS ISO 8178-2, 2008.

Dictionaries and Encylopedias

If there is no author then the title (e.g. Oxford English Dictionary) should be used in the reference list.
Title, Volume (if applicable), Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, year.
e.g. Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. 3. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.


If an encyclopaedia entry has a named author then the format for a chapter in a book should be used with the addition of the encyclopaedia volume number.
Author(s), “Title of chapter”, in Author(s)/Editor(s), Ed./Eds., Title, Volume (if applicable), Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, year, page numbers (use p. or pp.).
e.g. R.P. Kesner, “Memory neurobiology”, in V.S. Ramachandran, Ed., Encyclopedia of the human brain,Vol. 2. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 783-796.


Note: If you are referencing from an online source use the standard referencing format for reference works as detailed above.